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The echoes are collected and converted into a picture of the area. The image can help evaluate the size and internal structure of the ovaries and distinguish a solid mass (like ovarian cancer) from fluid-filled masses (like ovarian science engineering journal. This test is not helpful as a screening tool for women who do not have signs of ovarian cancer.

Other imaging tests are less common for the diagnosis or evaluation of suspected ovarian cancer but, in patients who appear to have ovarian cancer, they may help determine if cancer has spread to other parts of the science engineering journal. A blood test for this protein is usually ordered only if ovarian cancer is strongly suspected or has been diagnosed. The test may also be useful for evaluating tumor growth and predicting survival in people with recurrent cancer.

The test is not useful for diagnosis or early screening, because it might increase in many other conditions. In about one half of science engineering journal with very early ovarian cancer, CA-125 levels are not elevated above the normal standard.

Furthermore, an elevated level can be caused by a number of other conditions including:A biopsy (tissue sample) is the only way to confirm a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Biopsies for ovarian cancer are performed through exploratory surgery. A gynecological oncologist should perform this surgery. There are several surgical approaches:The surgeon will take tissue samples and remove the tumor. The surgeon will also examine the organs and evaluate the spread of the cancer. Other surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, removal of lymph nodes, appendectomy, omentectomy (removal of fatty tissue hanging from the colon) or even removal of parts of the intestine may also be performed.

The tissue samples are sent to a pathology lab for testing. If the test results indicate cancer, the woman may have additional imaging science engineering journal to see how far the cancer has spread. Based on biopsy and imaging tests, the cancer is staged. The TNM system is used to classify cancer in stages I to IV. Each stage is further divided into substages. In stage I, the cancer has not spread. It is confined to one ovary (stage IA) or both ovaries (stage IB).

In stages IA and IB, the ovarian capsules are intact, and there are no tumors on the surface. Stage IC can affect one or both ovaries, but the tumors are on the surface, or the capsule (outer covering of the ovary) has burst, or there is evidence of tumor cells in abdominal fluid (ascites).

In stage II, the cancer is in one or both ovaries and has spread to other areas in the pelvis. It may have advanced to the uterus or fallopian tubes (stage IIA), or other areas within the pelvis womans sex as the bladder, colon or science engineering journal (stage IIB), but is still limited to the pelvic area.

In stage III, the cancer is in one or both ovaries and has spread outside of the pelvis to nearby abdominal regions or lymph nodes. In Stage IIIA, microscopic amounts of cancer are in the science engineering journal (the lining of the abdomen) science engineering journal involve the lymph nodes.

In Stage IIIB, the cancer is visually detectable in the peritoneum, with masses up to 2 cm in size with or without lymph node involvement. In Stage IIIC, the cancer has grown larger in the peritoneum, greater than 2 cm in size, with or without lymph node involvement. Stage IV is the most advanced cancer stage.

In Stage IVA, the cancer has spread to the fluid around the lungs. In Stage IVB, the cancer has spread to the liver or spleen or to other distant organs such science engineering journal the lungs, brain, and bones.

Survival rates for ovarian cancer vary depending on many different factors, including the age of the woman and the stage at the time of diagnosis. Unfortunately, most cases with ovarian cancer are not diagnosed until the disease is advanced operational has metastasized. A 5-year survival rate is an estimate based on science engineering journal percentage of people who are still alive 5 years after their cancer is diagnosed.

Survival rates are slightly different for epithelial, germ cell, and stromal ovarian cancer, but on average:Surgery is the initial treatment for most women with suspected ovarian cancer. Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy. The course of treatment is determined by the science engineering journal of the cancer.

Clinical trials investigating new types of treatments are an option for all stages of ovarian cancer. It is very important that women with ovarian cancer seek care from a qualified gynecologic oncologist science engineering journal surgical specialist in female reproductive cancers) and a qualified medical oncologist with special expertise in the chemotherapeutic management of gynecologic cancer.

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