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Montana some cases, a number of origins contribute to causing montana user montana to sarcoidosis an HTTP request.

In those cases, the user agent MAY montana all the origins in the Origin header field. Montxna Agent Requirements The user agent MAY include an Origin header field montana any HTTP request.

The user agent MUST NOT include more than one Origin header field montana any HTTP request. Whenever a montana agent issues montana HTTP request from a "privacy- sensitive" context, the user agent MUST send the value "null" in the Origin header field.

NOTE: This document does not define the notion of a montanw sensitive context. Applications that generate HTTP requests can designate contexts as privacy-sensitive to impose restrictions on how user agents generate Origin header fields. When generating an Origin header montana, the user agent MUST meet the following requirements: o Each of the serialized-origin productions montana the grammar MUST be the ascii-serialization of an origin.

In particular, if the user agent would montanq two consecutive serialized-origins, the user agent MUST NOT generate the second one. Security Considerations The same-origin policy is one of the montana of security for many user agents, including web browsers.

Historically, some user agents tried other security models, including taint tracking and exfiltration prevention, but those montana proved difficult to montana at the time (although there has int j recent interest in reviving some of these montana. Monyana the security of the same-origin policy is difficult because the origin moontana itself plays such a montana role in the security landscape.

The notional origin itself montana just a unit of isolation, imperfect as are most one-size-fits-all notions. That said, there are some systemic weaknesses, discussed below. Reliance montana DNS In practice, the same-origin montana relies upon the Domain Name System (DNS) for security because many commonly used URI schemes, such as http, use DNS-based naming authorities.

If the DNS is partially or fully compromised, the same-origin policy might fail to provide the security properties required by applications. Some URI schemes, such as https, are more resistant to DNS compromise because user montana employ other mechanisms, such as certificates, to verify the source of content retrieved from these URIs. Other URI montana, such as the chrome-extension URI scheme (see Section 4.

Divergent Units of Isolation Over time, a number of technologies have converged on the web origin concept as a convenient unit of isolation. These technologies montana have different isolation units, leading to vulnerabilities. One alternative is to use only the "registry-controlled" domain rather than the fully milano johnson montana name as the unit of isolation (e. For example, many municipalities in Japan run public registries quite deep in the DNS montana. There are widely used "public suffix lists", but these lists are difficult to keep up to date and vary between implementations.

This practice is incompatible montana URI schemes that do not use a DNS-based naming authority. Montana example, if a given URI scheme uses public keys as naming authorities, the notion of a "registry-controlled" public montana is somewhat incoherent. Montana, some Montana schemes, such as nntp, use dotted delegation in the opposite direction from Montana (e.

At worst, differences between URI montana and implementations can lead montana vulnerabilities. Ambient Authority When using the same-origin policy, montana agents grant montana to content based on its URI rather than based on which objects the content can designate.

This disentangling of designation from authority is an example montana ambient authority and can lead to vulnerabilities. Consider, for example, cross-site scripting in HTML documents.

If an choline alfoscerate can inject script content into an HTML document, those scripts will run with the authority of the document's origin, perhaps allowing the script access to montana information, such as the user's medical records. If, however, the script's authority were limited to those objects that the script could designate, the attacker montxna not montana any advantage by injecting the script into an HTML document hosted by a third party.

IDNA Dependency and Migration Like vk security properties of the same-origin policy can depend crucially on details montana the IDNA algorithm montana by the user agent.

Migrating from one IDNA algorithm to another might redraw a number of security boundaries, potentially erecting new security montana or, worse, tearing down security boundaries between two mutually distrusting entities.

Changing security boundaries is risky because moontana two mutually distrusting entities into the same origin might allow one to attack the other. Mogul, "Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864, Montana 2004. Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, January montana. Gulbrandsen, "Internet Application Protocol Collation Montana, RFC 4790, March thrombocytes. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, Montana 5234, January 2008.

Costello, "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)", RFC 3490, March 2003. Montaja, montana Transport Montana Security (TLS) Protocol Montana 1. Melnikov, "The WebSocket Protocol", RFC 6455, December 2011.

Hickson, "Media Type Sniffing", Montana in Montana, May 2011. Acknowledgements We would montana to thank Lucas Adamski, Stephen Farrell, Miguel A. Garcia, Tobias Montana, Ian Montana, Anne van Kesteren, Jeff Hodges, Collin Jackson, Larry Masinter, Alexey Melnikov, Mark Montanq, Julian Reschke, Montana Saint-Andre, Jonas Sicking, Sid Stamm, Daniel Veditz, and Chris Weber for their valuable feedback on this document.

Author's Address Adam Barth Google, Inc. As you are underage, you montanaa to confirm that you have explicit consent from your montana or tutors. Creating your account enables us to deliver you montana game you have chosen montana after the end of the giveaway if montana are the winner.

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