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Tye lists a number of candidates: The problem of pain location is handled in the same way that the early perceptual theories handled them: the location of pain is the location that the pain experiences represent as where the tissue damage is occurring. This sort of account becomes more attractive in light of the fact that we now have a much more robust and realist notion of experience whose phenomenological-cum-representational-content is a direct guide to the location of tissue damage.

The phenomenology of pain experiences now directly (transparently) presents tissue damage to the la haute roche in virtue of its identity with its representational content (Tye 2006a, 2006b). According to the common sense conception of pain (and following it, most perceptual theories) we are, epistemologically and psychologically, more interested in the experience than its object, tissue damage.

Our spontaneous conceptual reaction also follows this pattern: there is a marked difference in the locus of concept application or conceptual identification between standard exteroception and pain. As depicted in Figure 1 above, there is an obvious asymmetry between the two.

If feeling pain is nothing but perceiving tissue damage in a bodily region on a par with seeing a red apple, then one would naturally expect that when we report pain in body parts, we are reporting a perceptual relation that obtains between the perceiver and an extramental condition perceived. But this is not what we find. A pain report is a report of Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum experience whose representational accuracy is of no relevance to whether the report itself is accurate.

Whether or not I come to believe what it tells me is a matter of factors that ought not to be read into the analysis of what the truth-conditions of (5) are.

In fact, this sort of analysis proposed by perceptual theorists seems initially plausible given the ordinary conception of pain, and thus can be taken as an argument in favor of such theories.

But this is precisely where the problem lies for perceptual theories. Why is a pain report a report of an experience in the first instance if the experience is genuinely perceptual (exteroceptual). Nothing of this sort happens in genuine perception. In fact, this asymmetry Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum be transformed into a compelling argument against perceptual (as well as strong representationalist) theories in the following way.

Every genuine case Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum perception invites reporting an instance of perception in the relevant modality pfizer image sentences similar to (9)-(13), where the perceptual verb is used dominantly as a success verb.

It is also not surprising that perception typically yields conceptual Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum of the perceived object or condition in the first instance: the typical result of a perceptual process is bringing the perceived object under a perceptual concept.

But pain reports report feeling pain. Thus feeling pain is a not a form of genuine perception. Let us call this the argument from focus against perceptual theories. There is an obvious sense in which the perceptual theorist is bound to concede that reporting pain is not a case of reporting the obtaining of a perceptual relation between the perceiver and the extramental perceived object.

For to the extent to which reporting pain is reporting a conscious experience and only that, to that extent it is an introspective report, a report of intramental activity. Nevertheless, a perceptual theorist would insist that this reported experience is Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum perceptual experience. But why report the experience, the messenger, rather than its object, the message.

Why are we fixated on the messenger here. A natural explanation that a perceptual theorist might give is that unlike other perceptual modalities, the acts of what is cyst Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum damage involved in feeling pain (i. It is this negative affect that explains why we veterinary journal fixated on the experience itself, rather than what it is a perception of, i.

In other words, it is this negative quality that turns the recognitional focus onto Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum, and with it, onto the experience it attaches to. If this is correct, then, of course, pains are equally unpleasant even when they misrepresent.

This is why we pick out our acts of sensing (i. This seems to be a plausible explanation on a first pass. Indeed, a perceptual theorist can even give, plausibly, an evolutionary story about why these perceptual experiences should feel unpleasant: they represent or signal a property of body sunshine johnson that tends to hinder survival. However, can the same sort of explanation be Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum for other intransitive bodily sensations like itches, tickles, tingles, and orgasms.

Perhaps it can be done for experiencing orgasms, which are usually intensely pleasurable and has obvious evolutionary benefits (Block 1996, Tye 1996b, Aydede 2019). But what about others. Itches have an unpleasant quality to abdominal thrusts which normally makes one want to scratch Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum spot where one itches. But tickles and tingles can be pleasant at times and unpleasant at others, as well as affectively neutral at still other times.

Still, the concept of a tickle or tingle is like the concept of a pain in that they apply to the acts of sensing or experiencing, rather than to what external conditions these acts may be representing - if they represent anything.

These observations cast doubt on the plausibility of the explanation offered by the perceptual theorist for the asymmetry in focus. However, the perceptual theorist can still claim that whatever the explanation might be in the case of other intransitive bodily sensations, the explanation offered for pain is essentially correct, and such a theorist may thus conclude that she has discharged the burden of Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum in claiming that experiencing pain is engaging in genuine exteroception.

This reply has some initial plausibility since pain experiences have almost always a pronounced negative affect. Nevertheless, if one suspects - as one should - that the intransitivity of certain kinds of bodily sensations Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum a whole must have a unified Diovan HCT (Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum, one would be wise to conclude that the offered explanation is probably not the whole story, and thus might not be adequate all by itself.

There is also quite substantial scientific evidence that there are abnormal pain phenomena where the sensory and affective aspects of pain experiences are dissociated from each other - see Section 6.



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