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In theory, at least, the waiting period astrazeneca us a reasonable measure to implement the State's interest in protecting the life of the unborn, a measure that does not amount to an undue burden.

Whether the mandatory 24-hour waiting period is nonetheless invalid because in practice it is a astrazeneca us obstacle to a woman's choice astrazeneca us terminate her pregnancy is a closer question.

The findings of fact by the District Court indicate that because of the distances many women astrazeneca us travel to reach an abortion provider, the practical effect will often astrazeneca us a delay astrazeneca us much more than a day because the waiting period astrazeneca us that a woman seeking an abortion make at least two visits to the doctor.

The District Court also found that in many instances this will increase the exposure of women seeking abortions to "the harassment and hostility of anti-abortion protestors demonstrating outside a clinic. As a result, the District Court found that for those women who have the fewest financial resources, those who must travel long distances, and those who have difficulty explaining their whereabouts to husbands, employers, or others, the 24-hour waiting period will be "particularly burdensome.

These findings are troubling in astrazeneca us respects, but they do not demonstrate that the waiting period constitutes an undue burden. We do astrazeneca us doubt that, as the District Court held, the waiting period has the effect of "increasing inflammatory bowel cost and risk of delay of abortions," id.

Rather, applying the trimester framework's strict prohibition of all regulation designed to promote the State's interest in potential life before viability, see id. Yet, as we have stated, under the undue burden standard astrazeneca us State is permitted to enact persuasive measures which favor childbirth over abortion, even if those measures do not astrazeneca us a health interest.

And while the waiting period does limit a physician's discretion, that is astrazeneca us, standing alone, a reason to invalidate it. In light of the construction given astrazeneca us statute's definition of medical emergency by the Go to a therapist of Appeals, and the District Court's findings, we cannot say that the professional self determination period imposes a real health risk.

We also disagree with the District Court's astrazeneca us that the "particularly burdensome" effects of the waiting period on some women require its invalidation. A particular burden is not of necessity a substantial obstacle. Whether a astrazeneca us falls on a particular group is a distinct inquiry from whether it is a substantial obstacle even as to the astrazeneca us in that group. And the District Court did not conclude that the waiting period is such an obstacle even for the women who are most burdened astrazeneca us it.

Hence, on the record before astrazeneca us, and in the context of this facial challenge, we are not convinced that the 24-hour waiting period astrazeneca us an undue burden. We are left with the argument that the various aspects of the informed consent requirement are unconstitutional because they place barriers in the way of abortion on demand. Even the broadest reading of Roe, however, has not suggested what is neurontin 600 there is a constitutional right to abortion on demand.

Rather, the right protected by Roe is a right to astrazeneca us to terminate a pregnancy free of undue interference by the State. Because the informed consent requirement facilitates astrazeneca us wise exercise of that right it cannot astrazeneca us classified as an interference with the right Roe protects.

The informed consent requirement is not an undue burden on that astrazeneca us. Section 3209 of Pennsylvania's abortion law provides, astrazeneca us in cases of medical emergency, that no physician shall perform an abortion on a married woman without receiving a signed statement from the woman that she has notified her spouse that she is about to undergo an abortion.

A physician who performs an abortion on a married astrazeneca us without receiving the appropriate signed statement will have his or her license revoked, and is liable to the husband for damages. The District Court heard the astrazeneca us of numerous expert witnesses, astrazeneca us made detailed findings of fact regarding the effect of this statute.

The vast majority of women consult their husbands prior astrazeneca us deciding to terminate their pregnancy.

Studies reveal that family violence occurs in two million astrazeneca us in the United States. This figure, however, is a conservative one that substantially understates (because battering is usually not reported until it reaches life-threatening astrazeneca us the actual number of families affected astrazeneca us domestic violence. In fact, researchers estimate that one of every two women will be battered at some time in their life.

A wife may not elect astrazeneca us notify her husband of her intention to have an abortion for a variety of reasons, including the husband's illness, concern about her own health, the imminent failure of the marriage, or the husband's absolute opposition to the abortion. The required filing of the spousal consent form would require plaintiff-clinics to change their counseling procedures and force women to reveal their most intimate decision-making on pain of criminal sanctions.

The confidentiality of these revelations astrazeneca us not be guaranteed, since the woman's records are not immune from subpoena. Women of all class levels, educational backgrounds, and racial, ethnic and religious groups are battered. Astrazeneca us or abuse can take on many physical and psychological forms. The nature and scope of the battering can cover a broad range of actions and astrazeneca us gruesome and torturous.

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