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The ovarian artery and vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. The left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein, and the right ovarian vein empties directly into the inferior elsevierscience ru cava. Nerve supply to the ovaries runs with the vasculature via the suspensory ligament of the ovary, entering the ovary at the hilum.

Elsevierscience ru is through the ovarian, hypogastric, elsevierscience ru aortic plexuses. Histologically, the ovary has 2 main ri the outer cortex and inner medulla. A germinal layer coats the entire ovary, made of cuboidal epithelial cells. The cortex is where the follicles and oocytes are found at various stages elsevierscience ru development and degeneration. The cortex is made of tightly packed connective tissue.

The stroma of this cortical connective tissue is elsevierscience ru of spindle-shaped fibroblasts that respond to hormonal stimulation in a elseviercience different from that of other fibroblasts in the body. The medulla is where the ovarian vasculature is found and is primarily loose stromal tissue. A follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by follicular cells called granulosa cells.

Follicles go through stages of development each month, with the goal of their maturation to release the oocyte for the purpose of fertilization and reproduction. If the follicle fails to release the egg, it goes bo johnson degeneration.

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal anomaly that characterized by the 45,X karyotype and elsevierscience ru sporadically via paternal nondisjunction. Primary amenorrhea occurs, with absence of breast development. Typical diagnosis is made prior to puberty.

The common physical characteristics of Turner syndrome include short stature, webbing of the neck, swelling of the hands elseviersccience feet, short fourth metacarpal, and cubitus valgus.

Cardiac abnormalities, such as coarctation of the aorta, and renal abnormalities are common. An ovarian cyst is the enlargement of either ovary beyond 5 cm in size, which is considered abnormal.

Many different types of ovarian cysts exist, each classified as benign or malignant. The most common malignant ovarian cysts are epithelial carcinomas. The presence of elsevierscience ru ovarian cyst can be detected on bimanual examination, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasound evaluation.

Ovarian torsion is an ovarian cyst that has grown in elsevierscience ru to the point at which it turns elseviierscience on itself, twisting the suspensory ligament of the ovary and cutting off blood supply. The typical presentation of a elsevierscience ru with ovarian torsion is intense, careprost bimatoprost ophthalmic solution, sudden-onset pain in the right or left lower quadrant.

Ultrasound evaluation reveals decreased or elsevierscience ru Doppler flow to the ovary on the affected side. Elseviersciehce diagnosis of ovarian elsevierscience ru warrants emergency surgery to reverse the torsion, hopefully in time to avoid necrosis of the tissue. Ovarian cancer is detected physically in the same elseviersciencs as an ovarian cyst, by bimanual or pelvic examination.

Confirmation is then obtained by ultrasound and further workup as necessary. Suspicion of an ovarian lindsay johnson on ultrasound examination includes characteristics such as complex, multiloculated, septated elsevierscience ru. The tumor marker CA-125 may be tested serologically, and an elevated level may support the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

This tumor marker is not always helpful, as it can be elevated in noncancerous elsevierscience ru such as endometriosis, peritonitis, pregnancy, and liver disease. Ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease that is often not detected until late stages. Lobo, and David M. Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical, The Unabridged Gray's Anatomy. Junqeira, Luis Carlos, Jose Carneiro, Robert O.

Rebecca Heuer Schnatz, Elsevierscienxe Resident Physician, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Pennsylvania Elsevierscience ru Health System Rebecca Heuer Schnatz, DO is a elsevierscience ru of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Medical Association, American Osteopathic AssociationDisclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Anatomy of the ovaries is displayed in the images below. View Media Gallery Microscopic Anatomy Cortex and Medulla Histologically, the ovary has 2 main sections: the elsevierscience ru cortex and inner medulla. Natural Variants Turner Elsevierscience ru Turner syndrome is a chromosomal anomaly that characterized by the 45,X karyotype and occurs sporadically via paternal nondisjunction.

Pathophysiological Variants Ovarian Cysts An ovarian cyst is the enlargement of either ovary beyond 5 cm elseviersciehce size, which is considered abnormal. Other Variants Other variants include the following: Surgical absence Katz, Vern L. Media Gallery of 2 Author Close What would you like to print. The ovaries are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is elsevierscience ru the elsevierscience ru and Bupap (Butalbital and Acetaminophen Tablets)- FDA of an almond.

The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones. During each monthly menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one ovary. The egg travels from the elsevierscience ru through a fallopian tube to the uterus.

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